In lines to the increase in the poultry production all over the world, poultry farming in South Africa has also shown a major growth in its poultry sector. Keeping in view the last 10 years, the estimated number of birds have increased to about 49 million. Presently, the total number of birds the poultry sector in the country has is more than 160 million. Out of these, nearly 80 % of the birds were brought to use in terms of meat production while the remaining ones had been used for egg production. These consumption patterns also offer an indication towards the consumption of meat in the country, which has been increasing since the inception of the sector. Moreover, it is also important to note here that South Africa is also a major poultry producer in the continent of Africa. In addition to this, the compounded growth seen in the broiler production domain has also increased for about 38 % over the span of the past 10 years in the poultry industry of South Africa.
Layer, Broiler and Egg Production
Due to increased import of poultry from the countries like Argentina, Brazil and some others, the prices have decreased dramatically. Furthermore, due to the decrease in the prices, the consumption of meat and eggs is now on the rise. The broiler industry of SA comes to provide more than 50 % of the proteins that are consumed all over the country. But in terms of the agricultural GDP, it accounts for only 1/4th the total. The earnings that are being generated through the sales of these products in the country include R32.7 Billion in terms of the farming level and about R54 Billion in the retail sector of egg and broiler consumption.
Famous Breeds in South Africa
There are a number of breeds that are being used in the poultry sector of South Africa. The famous breeds of the region include large soft feather, true bantams, large hard feather, bantam hard feather, geese, ducks and turkeys. Moreover, a number of breeds from other regions are also been exported into the country, in order to have a variety of breeds. The farmers and poultry producers prefer to keep the bantams only if they wish to accommodate a large number of birds in a small area. There are also a number of indigenous breeds of chicken that are utilized in SA including Venda, Naked Neck, Natal Game, Zulu and many more. The potential of egg production for these breeds has also been subject to some latest researches. In lines to their findings, the egg production is quite low in comparison to the famous chicken production breeds in the world.
Rural and Urban Production
Most of the farmers in the rural settings prefer to keep a small number of birds by making use of some extensive and semi-extensive mechanisms for poultry production in South Africa. One reason for this might be the little attention and funding the government does for the growth of the sector in the rural area. Most of the poultry farms in South Africa are located in urban areas. There are some poultry houses that are located in the rural areas, but still they are not enough in comparison to the ones found in the urban settings.
Problems in South African Poultry Industry
The sector indeed faces a lot of problems relating to disease control, lack of funding and problems related to sanitation. The one solution to this problem can be offered by the government which should now focus on the development of the sector. Keeping in view the role of the poultry sector in terms of the overall economy of the country, the government should endeavor in offering extensive production and health systems for the domesticated animals. The poultry producers in the country now demand a pro-growth system for large and small scale poultry production. Moreover, the need of a regulatory framework and some new price control policies are also needed. Below are the arrangements the government needs to make:
- Quota Policy for poultry association of South Africa
- Control on the imports and the pricing formula
- All forms of safeguards in terms of TDCA
- Tariff review teams for South Africa Poultry
- Resolution of all the trading patterns
- Equalized regulation of the rural and urban production sectors
- Prevention of the sale of the previously frozen meat
- Establishment of some public private dealings and partnerships
- Introduction of a new procurement system for the benefit of the new and old farmers
- Increase in the health facilities and medications produced for the sector