Global poultry and trade of the poultry products has shown a major change in the past 40 years. Moreover, between the year 1970 and 2005 the poultry meat and levels of egg production had increased in a manner like never before. In other words, it can be asserted here that the trade of the poultry meat had increased in a much more agile way than the production itself. But here this increase has been marked for its imbalanced nature. It is because of the fact that in these times North America and Europe had lost their market shares, while China in addition to Brazil had managed to create a monopoly over the poultry production. The same applies to the developing countries which have also been a part of this rapid change. The time span in which most of the developing countries had surpassed the first world countries was from the year 1990 to 2010. In the present times, their contribution to the world poultry is about 55 % in terms of the meat and nearly 68 % in terms of the total egg production. The developing countries which are going to be of central focus here belong to the Asian and African continents.
In contrast to the production of duck and chicken meat, the developing countries in total are also in the lead in terms of the production of turkey. The highest levels of relative growth had been seen in the time period mentioned above, but still they are also going pretty strong. But there are some problems there are still in road to ultimate domination of the poultry world including health facilities, lack of investment, and outbreak of diseases, poor farming measures, lack of equipment and most importantly the need for more extensive scientific researches. The developing countries which are going to be of central focus here are Nigeria, Sudan, Egypt, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Iraq, Kenya, India and Philippines.
Poultry Production in Nigeria and Kenya
Just like all other countries, poultry is now one of the most important sectors for Nigeria and Kenya not only in terms of economy, but also in terms of fulfilling the needs of the people. In addition to offering a good source of protein and meat to the people, there are also a number of farmers that are earning a lot from the sector. But it is also a fact that there is a lack of high tech farms and poultry production houses in these countries. Still a lot needs to be done for the enhancement of the production, as the countries still import a lot of meat from other countries. Another major problem both of the countries face is a lack of coordination among the poultry sector with the government.
Poultry Farming in Sudan, Egypt and Iraq
Agriculture used to be primary source of income for Sudan due its large area, most of which was well suited for the domestication of the animals. Although the 1988 floods and a number of other factors did effectuate the poultry sectors, still Sudan has managed to increase its production. Poultry in Sudan as well as in Egypt was mainly carried out by the families and rural area residents. Both the countries are now focusing on the establishment of some more poultry houses and farms, for the purpose of which a number of breeds are also being exported to the region. On the other hand, Iraq presently offers a production of about 100 MT of red meat and chicken and about 1.2 million eggs on a yearly basis. Before 1950, the sector was only family based, but now it is marked for its commercial nature. Yes, in comparison to the past years when Iraq was not at war, the production was much more than it is now.
Poultry Farming in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
Sri Lanka and Bangladesh have a great potential in terms of poultry production. Poultry plays a vital role in the economy for both of the countries. Although a number of commercial units have been launched, still some more production is needed for the sake of exporting as well as for the residents of the countries. In both the countries, the meat and egg consumption has increased in the past few years, which indeed poses new challenges to the governments of the two nations. The bird flu which had broken out in the year 2008 in Bangladesh had also effectuated the growth to a large level in this country. Till now the poultry sectors have not managed to outpace the influences of the diseases that had killed hundreds of people due to which a large amount of chicken meat had to be wasted. The governments of the countries had to kill thousands of birds for controlling the spread of the disease.
Poultry Farming in India, Philippines and Pakistan
India now seems to lead all other developing countries in terms of the poultry farms and production. For all the three countries, poultry is undoubtedly a major contributor towards the GDP. Moreover, all of them have taken an innovative approach towards the structure, but the one country that has managed to gain an edge in terms of poultry production is India. In the past few years, the poultry sector in Pakistan has faced a number of major losses. Furthermore, it has also lost a number of its meat markets to its prime competitor i.e. India. On the other hand, the chicken broiler sector in Philippines is the one which has shown a major growth. In lines to the most recent production surveys, the poultry production in the country has also increased for about 5 %. There is a potential for much more growth in all these countries for which a number of revolutionary measures need to be taken.The issues the countries face include ineffective poultry production policies, no control on the pricing formula, lack of foreign investment, non-strategic market practices, lack of proper feeds, insufficient scientific research and much more, all of which need to be dealt with pragmatism and planning.